Download An Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations (Dover by Earl A. Coddington PDF

By Earl A. Coddington

"Written in an admirably cleancut and cost effective style." — Mathematical Review. a radical, systematic first path in trouble-free differential equations for undergraduates in arithmetic and technological know-how, requiring in simple terms easy calculus for a heritage, and together with many routines designed to strengthen students' strategy in fixing equations. With difficulties and solutions. Index.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations (Dover Books on Mathematics)

Sample text

It is clear that (0,0) is not an attractor. 1 adds quickly to the number of possible cases. To illustrate such discussions we shall make some introductory remarks about the case n = 3. The eigenvalues ),1. ),2 and ),S can be real or one real and two complex conjugate. 10 Eigenvalue diagrams with Cb C2 and Cs arbitrary constants. We consider the following cases: a. Three real eigenvalues. If the eigenvalues have all the same sign (Ia - b) then we call this a three-dimensional node. The cases Ie - d are of type saddle-node.

Y = -x. With F'(O) = 1(0) the eigenvalues are A1,2 1 (0) ± 2 1 [12(0) - 42. J1 = -2/ It follows from the assumptions that if F'(O) does not vanish, F'(O) is negative, so (0,0) is a negative attractor. To apply the Poincare-Bendixson theorem we prove also for this system, that there exists an annular domain which is positive invariant. 6 we find it = xx + yiJ = x(y - F(x)) + y(-x) or it = -xF(x). we have it ~ We note that for -a < x < a OJ this is in agreement with the negative attraction of (0,0).

6 has only one critical point: (0,0). By expansion in a neighbourhood of (0,0) we find x = y - F'(O)x + ... y = -x. With F'(O) = 1(0) the eigenvalues are A1,2 1 (0) ± 2 1 [12(0) - 42. J1 = -2/ It follows from the assumptions that if F'(O) does not vanish, F'(O) is negative, so (0,0) is a negative attractor. To apply the Poincare-Bendixson theorem we prove also for this system, that there exists an annular domain which is positive invariant. 6 we find it = xx + yiJ = x(y - F(x)) + y(-x) or it = -xF(x).

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