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By Paul Williams

Williams' paintings is the 1st book-length scholarly research dedicated completely to Santideva's philosophy and as such it merits our recognition and appreciation. Williams is a talented and interesting author a truly attention-grabbing and full of life book.--Eli Franco, Bulletin of SOAS

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BODHICARyAVATARA 8 : 9 7:2 Supposing one says that the suffering which happens to that [other] person does no harm to me, therefore (s)he should not be protected against [it] I Then since future suffering ( Skt . : 'the sufferings of future bodies' ) also is doing no harm [to you now] why is that to be protected against ? II The opponent is putting forward an argument, indicated in the Sanskrit by the conclusion marker ato, 'therefore' . Possibly our earliest Tibetan commentary, the Byang chub sems pa'i spyod pa la 'jug pa'i 'grel pa by the second Sa skya hierarch bSod nams rtse mo ( 1 142- 82), brings out the opponent's argument here very clearly and felicitously.

E. 41 The implication here is that even those who have understood emptiness through reasoning alone, inasmuch as they have under­ stood emptiness, do not think that anything, including emptiness itself, is truly established. Once more rGyal tshab makes a distinction - this time between the stopping of verbal differentiations (prapaiica) of definitive truth which while a noble achievement does not in itself equal nirvaIJa, and the stopping of verbal differentiations of dual 23 Altruism and Reality appearance which, in general and in the last analysis can be said here to equal nirvalJa.

Mi pham also speaks of the calming of all verbal differentiations. 34 The image here is of the investigating mind returning to that from which it came and of which it always is a part - the dharmata. It follows from what Mi pham says that the investigating mind itself must be fundamentally, by nature, the dharmata. The conventional is the ultimate, and the actual attainment of nirva1fa through following the path and the primordial natural state of nirvafJa turn out to be not substantially different.

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