By Tolemariam Fufa
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Extra info for A Typology of Verbal Derivation in Ethiopian Afro-Asiatic Languages
Ró máhóó-n tá-s békk-ì-hè (S) 1c. ’ (1a) is an intransitive structure where békkà- ‘appear’ is a verb stem which ends in a thematic vowel. This structure has one subject. (1b) is a causative counterpart of (1a) in which the thematic vowel a is replaced by the causative marking –i-. Because of the presence of –i-, a causer is added in (1b). (1c) is an alternative causative structure of (1b) in which the causative morpheme –issi- replaces the thematic vowel a. In the following cases too a contrasts with –i-; only the causative structures do not have alternative formatives: 2a.
In assistive causatives the initial consonant of the root obligatorily followed by –a-. Semantically the caused events are fully instigated by the corresponding causees ïne-n ‘me’. The causers are only facilitators of the caused events. In examples such as (38) the causer may provide the causee with relevant information and material. But in example (39) the causer simply accompanies the causee. In assistive causatives the causer and the causee bring the event together. Similative causative refers to a situation where someone speaks about another person’s mind as if he/ she were brought a caused event by his/ her thought or speech.
To say ‘bent’. The affixation of the causative morpheme does not result in transitivization of the corresponding base verbs. These verbs could alternatively be used as ideophonic expressions. Verbs of sound emission such as aläk’k’äs- ‘to cry’, agäss- ‘to bellow’ and anbarräk’k’- ‘to release a loud sound’ are de-nominal intransitive causatives. These causative verbs do not have a parallel way of expression with the verb all- ‘say’. In general, a verbalizing morpheme derives (intransitive) verbs from nominal bases.