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By Lee Martin

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Extra info for A Survey of Agricultural Economics Literature: Agriculture in Economic Development, 1940s to 1990s

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Table 1 presents economic indicators for forty of the forty-five countries in Africa. Africa's poverty is illustrated by the point that the total GNP of the forty-five countries in 1985 was less than the total GNP of Spain, a nation with forty million people. One of the most disturbing trends over the last twenty years has been declining per capita production of food crops. The USDA [1981] pointed out that Africa is the only region of the world where per capita food production declined from 1960 to 1980.

Santiago, Chile International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases. Nairobi, Kenya UN International Monetary Fund. Washington Indiana, United States Institute de Nutrition de Centre American y Panarama (Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama). Guatemala City Institute Colombian de Reforma Agraria (Colombian Institute of Agrarian Reform). Bogota, Columbia Institut National pour l'£tude Agronomique de Congo (National Institute for Agronomic Study in the Congo). Yangambi, Zaire (formerly Belgian Congo) Institute de Estabilizacidn de Precios (Institute of Price Stabilization).

I, p. 271. Key: . . Not available. 0 9—8 % 68 100 6—6 84 96 63 60 60 74 59 48 64 66 53 56 54 57 67 70 — 81 79 55 53 I. INTRODUCTION 7 perspective rather than the agricultural sector because research has shown that rural households in sub-Saharan Africa typically allocate from 25 to 40 percent of their labor to nonfarm activities. We begin by identifying standard references on African agricultural development and presenting a descriptive overview of agricultural systems in subSaharan Africa. Our survey examines research on food and agricultural policy in historical perspective starting with the precolonial period (1800-1880s) and moving to the colonial period from the 1880s to 1960 including discussion of key theoretical perspectives on agricultural development which have had an important influence on policy makers and scholars working in Africa.

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