Download A History of Life-Extensionism in the Twentieth Century by Ilia Stambler PDF

By Ilia Stambler

This paintings explores the historical past of life-extensionism within the twentieth century. The time period life-extensionism is intended to explain an ideological process professing that radical existence extension (far past the current lifestyles expectancy) is fascinating on moral grounds and is feasible to accomplish via unsleeping clinical efforts. This paintings examines significant traces of life-extensionist notion, in chronological order, over the process the twentieth century, whereas targeting valuable seminal works consultant of every development and interval, by way of such authors as Elie Metchnikoff, Bernard Shaw, Alexis Carrel, Alexander Bogomolets and others. Their works are thought of of their social and highbrow context, as elements of a bigger modern social and ideological discourse, linked to significant political upheavals and social and fiscal styles. the subsequent nationwide contexts are thought of: France (Chapter One), Germany, Austria, Romania and Switzerland (Chapter Two), Russia (Chapter Three), the USA and united kingdom (Chapter Four). This paintings pursues 3 significant goals. the 1st is to aim to spot and hint during the century a number of regular biomedical tools whose improvement or purposes have been linked to radical hopes for life-extension. past mere hopefulness, this paintings argues, the need to appreciably lengthen human existence usually constituted a powerful, notwithstanding rarely stated, motivation for biomedical learn and discovery. it is going to be proven that novel fields of biomedical technology usually had their beginning in far-reaching targets of radical existence extension. The dynamic dichotomy among reductionist and holistic equipment should be emphasised. the second one target is to enquire the ideological and socio-economic backgrounds of the proponents of radical existence extension, with the intention to be sure how ideology and fiscal stipulations influenced the life-extensionists and the way it affected the technological know-how they pursued. For that objective, the biographies and key writings of numerous favorite sturdiness advocates are studied. Their particular ideological premises (attitudes towards faith and growth, pessimism or optimism concerning human perfectibility, and moral imperatives) in addition to their socioeconomic stipulations (the skill to behavior and disseminate learn in a selected social or monetary milieu) are tested in an try and discover what stipulations have inspired or discouraged life-extensionist notion. This study argues for the inherent adjustability of life-extensionism, as a selected kind of clinical firm, to specific widespread kingdom ideologies. The 3rd, extra basic, target is to assemble a vast sign in of life-extensionist works, and, in line with that sign up, to set up universal features and ambitions definitive of life-extensionism, comparable to valuation of lifestyles and fidelity, regardless of all of the variety of equipment and ideologies professed. This paintings will give a contribution to the certainty of maximum expectancies linked to biomedical development which were scarcely investigated by way of biomedical heritage.

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In other parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, there were rejuvenators and life-extensionists too: Zoltán von Nemes-Nagy and Istvan Szabo in Hungary, Arnold Lorand and Vladislav Ruzicka in Czechoslovakia. But Austria, particularly “liberal Vienna,” occupied the center stage, in the decades before and after the breakdown of the Empire in 1919-1920. For Steinach, the sense of vindication was long delayed. ” Steinach, the Director of the Biological Institute of the Viennese Academy of Sciences, could not afford to be implicated in quackery or violation of the scientific method.

91 Though there has been a long tradition associating sexual vigor with longevity, sex gland supplementation rose to unprecedented prominence in the late 19th century thanks to the work of the French scientist, Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard. In Brown-Séquard’s work, the ancient “revitalizing principle” assumed a very tangible chemical and physiological substance. Serving as the President of the French Biological Society and Chair of Medicine at the Collège de France in Paris (form 1878 to 1894, the post formerly occupied by his teacher, Claude Bernard), Brown-Séquard was a foremost authority in endocrinology, having proven specific effects of internal secretions, particularly those of the sex glands.

As he recurrently emphasized, formal medical accreditation was not necessary for him to think and experiment. ” According to him, questions in research and therapy ought to be decided on the basis of clinical and experimental evidence, and not according to rank, titles or affiliations. Being self-funded, he did not depend on established institutions – he owned an institution. As Auguste Lumière was well established financially, so was he well established politically. For decades he was a pillar of the Lyon community, sitting on the Board of Directors of the Hospitals of Lyon and at the Lyon City Council.

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