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By Dirk J. Struik

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Meanwhile, racism is becoming endemic and directed against virtually all non-Greeks. Since the early 1980s, at the insistence of the northern European Schengen member states, consecutive so-called amnesties have been announced in southern European countries that have legalized the stay of hundreds of thousands of undocumented immigrants. These amnesties have seldom led to permanent resident permits or to substantial rights of citizenship, but often rather to a new precarious temporary status.

No comparable data are available for southern European countries since they were still emigration areas at this time. 1. Migrant populationa in selected Western European countries, 1950–75 (1,000 and per cent) (1) (2) (3) Migrant population (4) Total population Countries 1950 1960 1974 (1974) Col. (3) as % of Col. 7 a Figures for all countries except the UK are for foreign residents. They exclude naturalized persons and immigrants from the Dutch and French colonies. UK data are Census figures for 1951, 1961, and 1971, and estimates for 1974.

In the early period of foreign-worker recruitment after 1945, most migrants came from neighbouring or fairly close countries: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland recruited from Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Greece. Sweden recruited from neighbouring Finland. The exceptions were the post-colonial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean, and Asia to the UK, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. Moreover, each immigration country tended to receive newcomers from a limited range of source countries: four or five countries generally accounted for the bulk.

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